Chapter 1 – materials

Sources cited in “Chapter 1: What is jihadi culture and why should we study it?”

Footnote 1: See, for example, Jonathan Pieslak, Sound Targets: American Soldiers and Music in the Iraq War (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009); Iain R. Edgar, The Dream in Islam: From Qur’anic Tradition to Jihadist Inspiration (New York: Berghahn Books, 2011); Lianne Kennedy Boudali, Afshon Ostavar, and Jarret Brachman, Islamic Imagery Project: Visual Motifs in Jihadi Internet Propaganda (West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center, 2006).

Footnote 2: Elisabeth Kendall, “Yemen’s Al-Qa’ida & Poetry as a Weapon of Jihad,” in Twenty-First Century Jihad: Law, Society and Military Action, ed. Elisabeth Kendall and Ewan Stein (London: I. B. Tauris, 2015), 247–269 (.pdf file); Philipp Holtmann, “Casting Supernatural Spells and Fostering Communitas: Abu Yahya Al-Libi’s Qasida Poetry,” in Jihadism: Online Discourses and Representations, ed. Rüdiger Lohlker (Vienna: Vienna University Press, 2013), 103–120; Behnam Said, “Hymns (Nasheeds): A Contribution to the Study of the Jihadist Culture,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 35, no. 12 (2012): 863–879 (.pdf file); Anthony Lemieux and Robert Nill, “The Role and Impact of Music in Promoting (and Countering) Violent Extremism,” in Countering Violent Extremism: Scientific Methods & Strategies, ed. Laurie Fenstermacher and Todd Leventhal (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, 2011), 143–152 (.pdf file); Philipp Holtmann, “The Symbols of Online Jihad,” in Jihadism: Online Discourses and Representations, ed. Rüdiger Lohlker (Vienna: Vienna University Press, 2013), 9–64; A. Aaron Weisburd, “Comparison of Visual Motifs in Jihadi and Cholo Videos on YouTube,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 32, no. 12 (November 30, 2009): 1066–1074; James P. Farwell, “Jihadi Video in the ‘War of Ideas,’” Survival 52 (2010): 127–150; Abdelasiem El Difraoui, Al-Qaida par l’Image: La Prophétie du Martyre (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2013).

Footnote 3: Joseph Alagha, “Jihad through ‘music’: The Taliban and Hizbullah,” Performing Islam 1, no. 2 (2013): 263–289; Joseph Alagha, “G. Banna’s and A. Fadlallah’s Views on Dancing,” Sociology of Islam 2, no. 1–2 (November 21, 2014): 60–86; Mikhail Pelevin and Matthias Weinreich, “The Songs of the Taliban: Continuity of Form and Thought in an Ever-Changing Environment,” Iran and the CauTcasus 16 (2012): 79–109 (.pdf file); Atef Alshaer, “The Poetry of Hamas,” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication 2, no. 2 (2009): 214–230; Atef Alshaer, “The Poetry of Hezbollah,” in The Hizbullah Phenomenon: Politics and Communication, ed. Lina Khatib, Dina Matar, and Atef Alshaer (New York: Oxford University Press, n.d.), 119–152; Alex Strick van Linschoten and Felix Kuehn, eds., Poetry of the Taliban (London: Hurst, 2012).

Footnote 4: Thomas Vernon Reed, The Art of Protest: Culture and Activism from the Civil Rights Movement to the Streets of Seattle (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005); Anton Shekhovtsov, “European Far-Right Music and Its Enemies,” in Analysing Fascist Discourse: European Fascism in Talk and Text, ed. Ruth Richardson and John E. Wodak (London: Routledge, 2012), 277–296; Cheryl Herr, “Terrorist Chic: Style and Domination in Contemporary Ireland,” in On Fashion, ed. Shari Benstock and Suzanne Ferriss (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994), 235–266. See also Dena J. Epstein, Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003); Pietro Castelli Gattinara and Caterina Froio, “Discourse and Practice of Violence in the Italian Extreme Right: Frames, Symbols, and Identity-Building in CasaPound Italia,” International Journal of Conflict and Violence (IJCV) 8, no. 1 (April 16, 2014): 154–170 (.pdf file).

Footnote 5: Alagha, “G. Banna’s and A. Fadlallah’s Views on Dancing.”

Footnote 6: Philip Halldén, “Jihad, retorik och poesi i digitaliseringens tidsålder: Estetiska dimensioner i al-Qa‘idas Kulturkamp,” Samlaren – Tidskrift För Litteraturvetenskaplig Forskning 131 (2011): 330–352 (.pdf file); Manni Crone, “Religion and Violence: Governing Muslim Militancy through Aesthetic Assemblages,” Millennium – Journal of International Studies 43, no. 1 (2014): 291–307.

Footnote 7: Claudia Dantschke, “‘Pop-Jihad’: History and Structure of Salafism and Jihadism in Germany,” Working Paper (Berlin: Institute for the Study of Radical Movements, n.d.), [Accessed June 29, 2014].

Footnote 8: Marc Sageman, “The Turn to Political Violence in the West,” in Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalization Challenge, ed. Rik Coolsaet, 2nd ed. (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011), 119 (.jpg file).

Footnote 9: Ann-Sophie Hemmingsen, “The Attractions of Jihadism: An Identity Approach to Three Danish Terrorism Cases and the Gallery of Characters around Them” (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Copenhagen, 2010), 11 (.jpg file).

Footnote 10: Maruta Herding, Inventing the Muslim Cool: Islamic Youth Culture in Western Europe (Bielefeld: Transcript-Verlag, 2014).

Footnote 11: Jessica Stern, “Pakistan’s Jihad Culture,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 6 (2000): 115–126; Michael Taarnby and Lars Hallundbæk, “Fatah Al-Islam: Anthropological Perspectives on Jihadi Culture,” Real Instituto Elcano Working Paper (Madrid: Real Instituto Elcano, 2008) (.pdf file).

Footnote 12:Jeffrey Cozzens, “The Culture of Global Jihad: Character, Future Challenges and Recommendations,” Future Action Series (London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalization, October 2008).

Footnote 13: Gilbert Ramsay, Jihadi Culture on the World Wide Web (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013).

Footnote 14: The Oxford English Dictionary notes that “the sense development of the word … from the 19th cent. onwards is very complex.”

Footnote 15:“Culture, n.,” Oxford English Dictionary (online), (accessed July 21, 2015).

Footnote 16: Edmund Leach, Political Systems of Highland Burma. A Study of Kachin Social Structure (London: Bell, 1954), 11.

Footnote 17: Gili Cohen, “IDF Brigade Refuses to Let Soldier Read Poetry on the Radio so as Not to Ruin ‘Fighter’s Image’,”, June 18, 2013.

Footnote 18: According to one jihadi account, the fighters “spoke about those weapons and extolled them as if they were talking about beautiful women”; Abu al-Shaqra al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul Ila Baghdad” [From Kabul to Baghdad], 2007, 13, [Accessed November 2, 2012] (Part 1).

Footnote 19: For an interesting article on elaborate ways of killing, see Lee Ann Fujii, “The Puzzle of Extra-Lethal Violence,” Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 2 (2013): 410–426.

Footnote 20: Bruce Lawrence, Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama Bin Laden (London: Verso, 2005), 58–62.

Footnote 21: For a treatment of beliefs in suicide missions see Jon Elster, “Motivations and Beliefs in Suicide Missions,” in Making Sense of Suicide Missions, ed. Diego Gambetta (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 233–258. And, more generally, see Diego Gambetta, Making Sense of Suicide Missions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Footnote 22: Mohamed Sifaoui, Inside Al-Qaeda: How I Infiltrated the World’s Deadliest Terrorist Organization (London: Granta Books, 2003), 86.

Footnote 23: See, particularly, Boaz Ganor, Katharina Von Knop, and Carlos Duarte, Hypermedia Seduction for Terrorist Recruiting – Volume 25, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series: Human and Societal Dynamics (Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2007); Thomas Hegghammer, “Can You Trust Anyone on Jihadi Internet Forums?,” in Fight, Flight, Mimic: Identity Signalling in Armed Conflicts, ed. Diego Gambetta (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming); Ramsay, Jihadi Culture on the World Wide Web.

Footnote 24: See notably Michael Bacharach and Diego Gambetta, “Trust in Signs,” in Trust and Society, ed. Karen S. Cook (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001), 148–184; Diego Gambetta, “Deceptive Mimicry in Humans,” in Perspectives on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science, ed. Susan Hurley and Nick Chater (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005), 221–241.

Footnote 25: Hegghammer, “Can You Trust Anyone on Jihadi Internet Forums?”; Thomas Hegghammer, “The Recruiter’s Dilemma: Signalling and Rebel Recruitment Tactics,” Journal of Peace Research 50, no. 1 (2013): 3–16.

Footnote 26: Reuel Marc Gerecht, “The Counterterrorist Myth,” The Atlantic, August 2001.

Footnote 27: Marc Sageman, Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), 156–157.

Footnote 28: Dantschke, “‘Pop-Jihad’: History and Structure of Salafism and Jihadism in Germany,” 14.

Footnote 29: AFGP-2002-003251 (Harmony document), Abu Hudhayfa, “Ila al-akh al-fadil al-sheikh al-jalil Abi ‘Abdallah” [To the Dear Brother and the Reverent Sheikh Abu ‘Abdallah], dated June 20, 2000, pp. 23 and 25 of the original handwritten document. The translation is Nelly Lahoud’s. Another English translation of the document can be found at [Accessed November 2, 2015].

Footnote 30: Anwar Al-Awlaki, “44 Ways to Support Jihad,” Authentic Tauheed, January 2009.

Footnote 31: “Yemeni Woman’s Life Gives Rare Look into Al Qaida Network,” Gulf News, February 27, 2014.

Footnote 32: Abu Mansuur Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 2012, 119 (.jpg file).

Footnote 33: Abu Ja‘far al-Misri al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat ‘arabi afghani [Memoirs of an Afghan Arab] (Cairo: Dar al-Shuruq, 2002), 149 (.jpg file).

Footnote 34: Diego Gambetta, Codes of the Underworld: How Criminals Communicate (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009).

Footnote 35: “Released From Prison, ‘Apologetic Bandit’ Writes about Life Inside,”, March 18, 2015.