Chapter 9 – additional materials

Sources cited in “Chapter 9: Non-military practices in jihadi groups”

Footnote 1: As Jan Snoek notes, “The number of definitions proposed [for the term ‘ritual’] is endless, and no one seems to like the definitions proposed by anyone else.” Jan A. M. Snoek, “Defining ‘Rituals,’” in Theorizing Rituals: Issues, Topics, Approaches, Concepts, ed. Jens Kreinath, Jan Snoek, and Michael Stausberg (Leiden: Brill, 2006), 3.

Footnote 2: For more on what we may call the “military bias” in the study of rebel groups, see Zachariah Cherian Mampilly, Rebel Rulers : Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life during War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011), 6 (.jpg file).

Footnote 3: For textual content, see the online library Minbar al-Tawhid wa’l-Jihad (available at or For the content of videos, see Cecilie Finsnes, “What Is Audio-Visual Jihadi Propaganda? An Overview of the Content of FFI’s Jihadi Video Database” (Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), March 20, 2010) (.pdf file).

Footnote 4: For example, Western officials often claim that laptops confiscated from jihadis are full of pornography; see, for example, Phyllis Chesler, “Why Are Jihadis So Obsessed with Porn?,” New York Post, February 17, 2015. However, this alleged abundance of adult content on jihadi computers has never been documented with unclassified primary sources.

Footnote 5: Nasser al-Bahri and Georges Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre de Ben Laden: Révélations de son garde du corps repenti (Paris: Michel Lafon, 2010), 52 (.jpg file).

Footnote 6: Aukai Collins, My Jihad: The True Story of an American Mujahid’s Amazing Journey from Usama Bin Laden’s Training Camps to Counterterrorism with the FBI and CIA (Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2002), 24 (.jpg file).

Footnote 7: Abdul Ghaffar El Almani, “Mein Weg nach Jannah,” 2010, 86 (.jpg file).

Footnote 8: Collins, My Jihad, 27 (.jpg file).

Footnote 9: Abu Ja‘far al-Misri al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat ‘arabi afghani [Memoirs of an Afghan Arab] (Cairo: Dar al-Shuruq, 2002), 102 (.jpg file).

Footnote 10: Ibid., 117 (.jpg file).

Footnote 11: See, e.g., Fadil Harun, Al-harb ‘ala al-islam [The War against Islam], vol. 2, 2009, 169, 216, 222.

Footnote 12: al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 106 (.jpg file).

Footnote 13: Omar Nasiri, Inside the Jihad: My Life with Al-Qaeda (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2006), 39 (.jpg file).

Footnote 14: Harun, Al-harb, 2:253, 276.

Footnote 15: Khaled al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful than Paradise: A Jihadist’s Own Story (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2009), 130. See also p. 136.

Footnote 16: Abu al-Shaqra al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad” [From Kabul to Baghdad], 2007, [Accessed November 2, 2012], Part 6.

Footnote 17: Harun, Al-harb, 2:282.

Footnote 18: Abu Mansuur Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 2012, 73 (.jpg file). Full document (.pdf file)

Footnote 19: “Badr al-riyadh” [The Badr of Riyadh] (Al-Sahhab Foundation for Media Production, 2004).

Footnote 20: Bruce Lincoln, Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 97–102.

Footnote 21: Harun, Al-harb, 2:255.

Footnote 22: “Martyrs of Bosnia,” (London: Azzam Publications, 2000), Part 8, around 1′30″

Footnote 23: Harun, Al-harb, 2:269.

Footnote 24: Mohamed Sifaoui, “Infiltration islamiste en France,” in Zone interdite (Paris 2003), around 21′45″.

Footnote 25: Ibid., around 47′40″.

Footnote 26: Lincoln, Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11, 97–102.

Footnote 27: Harun, Al-harb, 2:246, 248.

Footnote 28: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 138.

Footnote 29: See for example Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 138 (.jpg file).

Footnote 30: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 151 (.jpg file).

Footnote 31: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 63.

Footnote 32: Omar Guendouz, Les soldats perdus de l’Islam: les réseaux français de Ben Laden (Paris: Editions Ramsay, 2002), 51.

Footnote 33: Robert Fowler, A Season in Hell: My 130 Days in the Sahara with Al Qaeda (Toronto: Harper Collins, 2011), 79 (.jpg file), 91 (.jpg file).

Footnote 34: Sifaoui, “Infiltration,” around 8′35″.

Footnote 35: Richard Gauvain, “Ritual Weapons: Islamist Purity Practices in Cairo,” ISIM Review 19 (2007): 40–41 (.pdf).

Footnote 36: Harun, Al-harb, 2:281.

Footnote 37: Collins, My Jihad, 16 (.jpg file).

Footnote 38: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad,” Part 6.

Footnote 39: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 182 (.jpg file).

Footnote 40: Harun, Al-harb, 2:162.

Footnote 41: Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 137, 146.

Footnote 42: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 35.

Footnote 43: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 80 (.jpg file).

Footnote 44: Dirk Cornelis Mulder, “The Ritual of Recitation of the Qur’an,” Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 37, no. 3 (1983): 250–251 (.pdf file).

Footnote 45: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 56 (.jpg file).

Footnote 46: Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 151.

Footnote 47: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 118–119.

Footnote 48: Al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 86 (.jpg file).

Footnote 49: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul Ila Baghdad” [From Kabul to Baghdad], Part 6.

Footnote 50: Al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 37 (.jpg file); al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad,” Part 5.

Footnote 51: Harun, Al-Harb, 2:276; al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad,” Parts 2, 5, and 6; El Almani, “Mein Weg nach Jannah,” 80 (.jpg file); al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 91 (.jpg file).

Footnote 52: See, for example, al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 57.

Footnote 53: Al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 98 (.jpg file).

Footnote 54: El Almani, “Mein Weg nach Jannah,” 96 (.jpg file).

Footnote 55: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad,” Part 6.

Footnote 56: Harun, Al-harb, 2:113.

Footnote 57: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 118. See also p. 41.

Footnote 58: Harun, Al-harb, 2:251.

Footnote 59: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 65–66.

Footnote 60: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 35 (.jpg file). See also Sifaoui, Infiltration, around 13′00″.

Footnote 61: Harun, Al-harb, 2:224.

Footnote 62: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 82 (.jpg file).

Footnote 63: Ibid., 48.

Footnote 64: Harun, Al-harb, 2:180.

Footnote 65: Morten Skjoldager, Truslen Indefra: De Danske Terrorister (Copenhagen: Lindhart og Ringhof, 2009), 284.

Footnote 66: “Martyrs of Bosnia,” part 9, around 4′30″; Harun, Al-Harb, 2:275.

Footnote 67: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 264 (.jpg file).

Footnote 68: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 27.

Footnote 69: Al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 37 (.jpg file).

Footnote 70: Guendouz, Les soldats perdus de l’Islam, 64.

Footnote 71: Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 210–211 (.jpg file).

Footnote 72: Fowler, A Season in Hell, 54–55 (.jpg file); See also 157 (.jpg file).

Footnote 73: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad,” Part 8.

Footnote 74: Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 217.

Footnote 75: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad”, Part 1.

Footnote 76: Fowler, A Season in Hell, 69 (.jpg file), 70 (.jpg file); See also 140 (.jpg file).

Footnote 77: Most are night dreams. I encountered only one reference to a day vision. A Yemeni fighter in Somalia “had seen beautiful green birds … that no one else could see. … he took his visions to be a glad tiding of martyrdom”; see Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 92 (.jpg file).

Footnote 78: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 200 (.jpg file).

Footnote 79: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 88 (.jpg file).

Footnote 80: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 204 (.jpg file). See also “Martyrs of Bosnia,” Part 7, around 6’30’’, and Part 8 around 4′40″.

Footnote 81: “Martyrs of Bosnia,” Part 4, around 7′00’’.

Footnote 82: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 87 (.jpg file).

Footnote 83: Harun, Al-Harb, 2:267.

Footnote 84: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 200 (.jpg file).

Footnote 85: Fowler, A Season in Hell, 126 (.jpg file).

Footnote 86: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 188 (.jpg file).

Footnote 87: “Yawmiyat al-mujahid [Diaries of a Mujahid],” (al-Sahab, 2011). See especially Parts 2 and 4.

Footnote 88: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 230 (.jpg file).

Footnote 89: Robb Leech, “My Brother the Islamist” (Grace Productions, 2011) [Vimeo link], around 19′00″.

Footnote 90: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 7.

Footnote 91: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad”, Part 7; Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 56 (.jpg file).

Footnote 92: “Yawmiyat al-mujahid,” Part 3.

Footnote 93: Al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad”, Part 8.

Footnote 94: “Martyrs of Bosnia,” Part 9, around 9′30″.

Footnote 95: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 49.

Footnote 96: Leech, “My Brother the Islamist,” around 31′00″.

Footnote 97: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 165.

Footnote 98: Ibid., 53.

Footnote 99: Fowler, A Season in Hell, 126 (.jpg file).

Footnote 100: “Martyrs of Bosnia,” Part 5, around 13′40″.

Footnote 101: Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 12 (.jpg file); See also al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 50 (.jpg file).

Footnote 102: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 55 (.jpg file), 57 (.jpg file); al-Hindukushi, “Min Kabul ila Baghdad”; Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 139 (.jpg file), 222 (.jpg file); Collins, My Jihad, 11 (.jpg file); Fowler, A Season in Hell, 33 (.jpg file), 45 (.jpg file).”Martyrs of Bosnia,” Part 3, around 14′30″, Part 6 around 11′30″, and Part 7 around 2′30″; Sifaoui, “Infiltration,” around 7′40″.

Footnote 103: “Martyrs of Bosnia,” Part 8, around 0′01″.

Footnote 104: Al-Berry, Life Is More Beautiful, 15–16.

Footnote 105: Fowler, A Season in Hell, 78 (.jpg file).

Footnote 106: Fadil Harun, who is not one to gloss over shortcomings among jihadis, derides the notion that mujahidin take drugs; Harun, Al-Harb, 2:113.

Footnote 107: Ibid., 2:78, 121, 129.

Footnote 108: Richard P. Mitchell, The Society of the Muslim Brothers (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 292 (.jpg file).

Footnote 109: Al-Qandahari, Dhikrayat, 285–286 (.jpg file).

Footnote 110: A few individual militants have had tattoos predating their recruitment. For example, a Bosnian Islamist in Denmark had a picture of Usama bin Ladin tattooed on his chest; Skjoldager, Truslen Indefra, 194.

Footnote 111: Peter Bergen writes of 9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: “In addition to supervising the planning and preparations for the 9/11 operation, KSM worked with and eventually led Al Qaeda’s media committee. But KSM states he refused to swear a formal oath of allegiance to Bin Laden, thereby retaining a last vestige of his cherished autonomy”; Peter L. Bergen, The Osama Bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader (New York: Free Press, 2006), 301 (.jpg file).

Footnote 112: Al-Bahri and Malbrunot, Dans l’ombre, 158 (.jpg file).

Footnote 113: Al-Amriiki, “The Story of an American Jihaadi – Part One,” 70 (.jpg file).

Footnote 114: Laleh Khalili, Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine: The Politics of National Commemoration (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 32, 124–125.

Footnote 115: “Badr al-riyadh” (The Badr of Riyadh); “Yawmiyat mujahid,” Part 3.

Footnote 116: For details on the original quote, see Robert Ellis, The Games People Play: Theology, Religion, and Sport (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2014), 165.